Yoruba Enslavement of African Ancestors, Major Blocks on W.African Transatlantic Slave Trade :

Yoruba Enslavement of African Ancestors, Major Blocks on W.African Transatlantic Slave Trade :

A Rejoinder to Bolaji Aluko's compilation on 

The Benin Empire and Slave Trade – A History Lesson in 5 Minutes 

by Uwagboe Ogieva

23 - Febuary 2011

"The past is what makes the present coherent," said Afro-American writer James Baldwin, and the past "will remain horrible for exactly as long as we refuse to assess it honestly." :- Tunde Obadina

 

The United States drew a larger proportion of its slaves from Senegambia south to Liberia than any other region in the Americas. And Amazonia drew almost all of its captives from what is now Guinea-Conakry.Where a given part of the Americas drew on a number of African regions, it tended to do so in sequence. Thus Jamaica drew heavily on what is now Ghana and Benin (Republic of Benin-Dahomey) in the 17th century before switching to first eastern Nigeria and then northern Angola and the Congo region. Such transatlantic links bear an uncanny resemblance to the patterns established by free migrants leaving Europe for the Americas. 


The Atlas shows that the Atlantic slave trade remained strong until it was suppressed. Like the institution of slavery, the traffic that supplied captives did not die a natural economic death. The maps establish that in all the major importing areas of the Americas, the volume of the traffic peaked in the years just before its suppression. This pattern held for Brazil, the United States, and the British Americas as a whole.It is becoming commonplace to claim that there are more slaves in the world today than ever and that large-scale trafficking in people continues. The "Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade" suggests that such claims tend to obscure the horrors -- unique in human history -- of the Middle Passage from Africa to the Americas. It is indeed hard to imagine circumstances in which any parallel to the transatlantic slave trade could ever happen again.


From Nigeria and Their History in the Atlantic Slave Trade:
"Badagry was one of five divisions created in Lagos State in l968.
  A darker historical era saw many people of West Africa leave their shores for plantations in Europe, North and South America and the Caribbean. The infamous slave trade in Nigeria is not known to many people like the slave trade in Ghana, Senegal, Togo and Benin. Nigeria and Ghana were former British colonies. Senegal, Togo - Benin(Republic of Benin-Dahomey) were French colonies.


 
In the early 1700's, slaves were transported from West Africa to America through Badagry. It is reported that Badagry exported no fewer than 550,000 African slaves to America during the period of the American Independence in l787. In addition, slaves were transported to Europe, South America and the Caribbean. The slaves came mainly from West Africa and the neighboring countries of Benin (Republic of Benin-Dahomey)  as well as others parts of Nigeria. The slave trade became the major source of income for the Europeans in Badagry.

It was confessed that the prospects of Trans Atlantic Slave Trade fueled into tribal wars in Yorubaland as the rulers and slaves who had taken part of the European slave merchants' offer, went all out to wage war on the other towns and villages with the sole aim of getting slaves to be exchanged for wine and guns.""

 



Most of these slaves were Igbo and Yoruba, with significant concentrations of Hausa, Ibibio, and other ethnic groups. In the eighteenth century, two polities--Oyo and the Aro confederacy--were responsible for most of the slaves exported from Nigeria. The Aro confederacy continued to export slaves through the 1830s, but most slaves in the nineteenth century were a product of the Yoruba civil wars that followed the collapse of Oyo in the 1820s.


The expansion of Oyo after the middle of the sixteenth century was closely associated with the growth of slave exports across the Atlantic. Oyo's cavalry pushed southward along a natural break in the forests known as the Benin(Republic of Benin-Dahomey) Gap, i.e., the opening in the forest where the savanna stretched to the Bight of Benin), and thereby gained access to the coastal ports.




Most slaves exported from that region of Africa were sold by Yoruba traders, and many (if not most) of those slaves had been transshipped from further inside Africa. Many were identified by Europeans as coming from the Yoruba. Over time, as well, Yoruba culture and religion became common among many slaves in the Americas, so that a spiritual and communal connection became quite common. 


Several African states took an active part in the European slave trade when it began in the early sixteenth century. West Africa, in particular, was one of the principal routes for this commerce in human lives. Several forest kingdoms, such as the Oyo kingdom (Yoruba) and the kingdom of Dahomey, derived immense wealth from the slave trade. This slave trade, however, had a double edge. It meant that the kingdoms and city-states which derived commercial gain also had to fight more wars in order to obtain captives for the slave trade. The result was a high degree of political instability for these forest kingdoms; not only did the slave trade produce the largest single displacement of human peoples in human history, it also fragmented the African civilizations that participated in this commerce. "


Your's truly has the first edition published in 1901. The Egba's did not need Ijebu's to be sold in slavery when amongst them was Madam Tinubu the Iyalode of Egba who was a prominent trader and head of Egba women and who Tinubu square in Lagos is named after.She was said to be responsible for selling Ijaiye's to Slavery.Ijaye was where Kurunmi the Aare ona kakanfo or Generallisimo of Yoruba's had his base.He had a fight with the Alaafin of Oyo over succesion to the throne.The Egba's were allied to Ijaye but the Ibadan's and Oyo kingdom laid seige and defeated them. Ijaye no longer exists where it used to be and Ijaye is now an area in Abeokuta.
Other books to read are Yoruba warfare in the 19th century by J Ade Ajayi. You can also read the Egba's and their neighbours by Saburi Biobaku. Also read any of the papers or books by the contemporary giant of Yoruba history Adebayo Falola.

 

The rivalry of Egba's and Ijebu's is mainly commercial and involved trading routes to the sea.The British were able to cleverly manipulate these differences among the Yoruba in their effort to colonize. Read memoirs of British soldiers such as Carter whom the Carter Bridge is named for and colonial operatives such as Goldie who was Nigeria's version of Cecil Rhodes and then Glover.I am indeed aware that when Townsend was in Abeokuta a Captain Smith in 1861 was there as an observer watching the was the Egba's operated against the Dahomey Soldiers.A report of this is in Yoruba warfare of the 19th Century.

 

 

The Yoruba Wars Oyo, the great exporter of slaves in the eighteenth century, collapsed in a civil war after 1817, and bythe middle of the 1830s the whole of Yorubaland was swept up in these civil wars. New centers of slave rade--Ibadan and Abeokuta, --contested control of the trade routes and sought access to fresh supplies of slaves, whichwere important to repopulate the turbulent countryside. At this time, the British withdrew from the slave trade and beganto blockade the coast (see Abolition of the Slave Trade , this ch.). The blockade required some adjustments in the slavetrade along the lagoons that stretched outward near Lagos, while the domestic market for slaves to be used as farmlaborers and as porters to carry commodities to market easily absorbed the many captives that were a product of thesewars. War and slave raiding were complementary exercises among the Yoruba, who needed capital to buy the firearms with which they fought in a vicious cycle of war and enslavement. Military leaders were well aware of the connection between guns and enslavement.

 

Most of the Africans imported were from the coast of West Africa with the majority coming from Gold Coast (Ghana), Bight of Biafra (Nigeria), Dahomey (Yoruba slave merchant quarter) and other slave ports. Majority of the ethnic origins of the African slaves were Akans (mostly Fantes), followed by Igbo, Yoruba, Fons etc. 
Slaves from Africa were probably first brought to Montserrat in large numbers in the 1660s in South America. Their population grew to some 1,000 in 1678 and 7,000 in 1810, when they greatly outnumbered white settlers. 

SEE MONTSERRAT ISLAND: THE BEAUTIFUL PEOPLE OF THE VOLCANIC EMERALD ISLE OF CARIBBEAN: http://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.com.es/2014/05/montserr...
Montserrat Island, which is a British Overseas Territory or The British Dependent Territory, is a volcanic island in the Caribbean Sea, between Nevis and Guadeloupe and in southeast of Puerto Rico. The island contains seven active volcanoes and located in the Leeward Islands, part of the chain of islands known as the Lesser Antilles, in the West Indies. Montserrat Island measures approximately 16 km (9.9 mi) long and 11 km (6.8 mi) wide, with approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) of coastline. Montserrat has two islets, Little Redonda and Virgin, and Statue Rock. And the people of Montserrat are known as Montserratians

Wegbaja rose to power in roughly 1650 and came to embody the militaristic values that had become embedded among the Fon people. Based in his capital of Abomey, Wegbaja and his successors succeeded in establishing a highly centralized state with a deep-rooted tradition of autocratic centralized government. Economically, Wegbaja and his successors profited mainly from the slave trade and relations with slavers along the Atlantic coast. As he embarked on wars to expand their territory, they began using rifles and other firearms traded with French and Spanish slave-traders for young men captured in battle, who fetched a very high price from the European slave-merchants.Later expansion of Dahomey towards the coast met with resistance from the alafin, or ruler, of Oyo, who resented the political and economic rise of their subject. Soon after the march to the sea, the alafin of Oyo sent cavalry raids to Oyo in 1726, completely defeating the army. Later cavalry invasions in 1728, 1729, and 1730, in which Oyo proved sucessful, hindered the plans for coastal expansion.Read 

On the slave ships:

"Thus, put on board slave ships many West Africans attempted suicide, as Thomas Phillips of the Hannibal explained, because "tis their belief that when they die they return to their own country and friends."39 Under New World bondage Africans continued to cherish these beliefs; and, according to Zephaniah Swift, "to them the prospect of terminating life furnishes the pleasing consolation of terminating their wretchedness . . . and they fondly believe that they shall have a day of retribution in another existence in their native land."40 Swift's point was made more forcefully in May 1733 by an African woman in Salem, Massachusetts, who, after announcing she was going home to her own country, slit open her stomach.4' Similarly a woman captive aboard the slaver Canterbury in 1767 re- fused to speak to the white crew, and despite torture starved herself until her death-telling her black shipmates the night before she died that "she was going to her friends."42 Lieutenant Baker Davidson informed the House of Commons during their inquiry into the slave trade that it was common for sick Negroes to say, with much pleasure, that they were going to die, and were "going home from this Buccra country."43 It was generally accepted in the Afro-American subcul- tures that suicides would return to Africa after death, possessions and all. Fred- rika Bremer reports that female slaves commonly placed their favorite headker- chiefs on the corpse of a suicide; for each assumed that "it will thus be conveyed to those who are dear to her in the mother country; and will bear a salutation from her. The corpse of a suicide slave has been covered with hundreds of such to- kens. "

"White Cannibals, Black Martyrs: Fear, Depression, and Religious Faith as Causes of Suicide Among New Slaves"William D. Piersen, The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Apr., 1977), pp. 147-159

IN BENIN KINGDOM NIGERIA:


Although over 30% (about a third) of the Atlantic Slave Trade took place in the territory under Edo control, the Bight of Benin region of West Africa, the territory was too vast for the kingdom to police on a day by day and minute by minute basis, to prevent the trade. It was taboo, however, to capture or sell an Edo citizen and because the kingdom reasonably monitored this well, the African Diaspora has no concentration of Edo citizen slaves. Edo Chiefs had thousands of slaves captured in their territorial expansion wars but would not sell any. The Edo belief and saying was: “What level of hunger and deprivation would make an Edo Chief sell his slaves?” Rather than sell, Edo Chiefs helped thousands of slaves to escape from White holding camps in Edo territory. In fact, Edo Oba Eresoyen was shot at in his palace by a White slave merchant because he refused to help with the re-capture of escapee slaves from the White merchant’s holding camps, hiding in Edo Chiefs farms in Edo kingdom. 

European slave trade in West Africa started with the acquisition of domestic servants in 1522, and warrior kingdoms like Edo (Benin) had plenty of them captured as war booties, but would not sell them. The slave trade was very unpopular with the Edo people. They thought it was silly to sell fellow human beings. Their Obas and nobles were vehemently opposed to the business of slave trade and to the export of the productive fighting male. The Edo, of course, could not control the day to day happenings of the slave merchants, who apparently largely acted under cover at first in the vast territories under Edo hegemony. However, it was forbidden to sell or take a native Edo (Bini) into slavery and so elaborate identification marks on faces and chests were eventually contrived. The Bini, therefore, were hardly ever captured by Arabs or Europeans into slavery. 

Oba Ehengbuda (1578 – 1604 CE.) Ehengbuda ascended his father’s throne in 1578 CE. While his father, Oba Orhogbua, might be considered a water warrior who made his greatest impact in the lagoon territories, Oba Ehengbuda campaigned mainly on land in the Yoruba areas. 

All the warrior Obas, most times, personally led their troops to war. Oba Ehengbuda, while prosecuting his military activities in the Akure area, sustained burns which healed to leave scars on his body. This was systematized in the Iwu body marks which every Edo adult had to acquire to be able to participate in royal and court activities of the land. The markings also served to identify the Edo person for protection during the slave trade. Strong efforts were made to prevent Edo people from being sold into slavery. Edo people openly and actively encouraged and facilitated the escape of slaves from the holding centres in the kingdom and particularly from the Ughoton port. 

Alan Ryder, writing on this in his book: Benin and the European, narrated the experience of the Portuguese merchant, Machin Fernandes in Benin as early as 1522: That was during the reign of Oba Esigie. 

“Of the whole cargo of 83 slaves bought by 

Machin Fernandes, only two were males – 

and it is quite possible that these were 

acquired outside the Oba’s territory – 

despite a whole month (at Ughoton) spent 

in vain attempts to have a market 

opened for male slaves. The 81 females, 

mostly between ten and twenty years 

of age, were purchased in Benin City 

between 25 June and 8 August at the 

rate of one, two or three a day.” 

None of the 83 slaves was an Edo person, according to Ryder, and no Edo person could have been involved in the sales. It was taboo in Edo culture. Edo Empire was vast, with a great concentration of people from different ethnic backgrounds, Yoruba, Ibo, Itsekiri, Ijaw, Urhobo, Igalla etc., making a living in the lucrative Ughoton route that was the main centre of commercial activities in the southern area at the time, of what later became Nigeria. 

Alan Ryder, recording the experiences of yet another European merchant, the French trader and Captain called Landolphe, in Benin in February 1778, said, “the Ezomo (leading military Chief) was the richest man in Benin, owning more than 10,000 slaves, none of whom was ever sold.” The author then commented: “His (the Ezomo’s) refusal to sell any of his slaves is also noteworthy for the light it sheds upon the attitude of powerful Edo chiefs towards the slave trade: however numerous they might be, a great man did not sell his slaves.” Says Edo people: “vbo ghi da Oba no na mu ovionren khien?” Meaning, “what need does the Oba want to satisfy by putting out his slave for sale?” 

Oba Ohenzae’s (1641 -1661 CE) Ezomo (Military General and head of the Edo army) was called Ezomo N’Ogun. Ezomo N’Ogun was the first person in the history of Benin to propitiate his own head, (that is to give thanks to the spirit of good fortune) with a live elephant. The incidence helps to demonstrate the demoralizing effect the slave trade had on African communities through deaths, kidnappings, sacking and disappearance of towns and villages, and the truncation of African progress and civilization. Only two other Edo personages have achieved Ezomo N’ Ogun’s feat of using live elephant in rites. Iyase Ohenmwen achieved it some 170 years ago and Oba Akenzua II pulled it off in February 1936. 

Servants sent by Ezomo N’Ogun to capture a live elephant, took 14 days to come home with one. While the richly garlanded elephant, restrained with strong ropes to the legs, arms and body, was being led in procession through the streets to the ritual site, an elderly man, watching from the safety of the verandah of his home remarked rather loudly: 

“What is the cause of the rejoicing of these 

people over the fragment called life?” 

Dragged before the Ezomo N’Ogun for his impertinence, he pleaded to be allowed to explain himself and when allowed said: 

“My Lord, what I mean is, what is the cause of the rejoicing 

of these people over the fragment called life when 

it is possible to capture an elephant within 14 days return journey 

in the jungle between Benin City and the bank of River Ovia? 

A feat that would have been impossible within such a short time 

during the time of Ezomo Agban.” 


The slave trade had gone on for about two hundred years at the time and had taken its toll on the populations and communities around the city of Benin, turning once lively and sprawling towns and villages during Ezomo Agban’s time, into a long stretch of thick jungle. The jungle was in fact, so close, it was within 14 days return journey from the Ezomo N’Ogun’s backyard in Edo kingdom. Elephants and wild lives were now the close neighbours of the Edo people who were not allowing themselves to be enslaved. Instead of punishing the old man as his persecutors had hoped, Ezomo N’Ogun thanked and rewarded him generously for his wisdom. 

Oba Eresoyen (1735 – 1750 CE) had only just ascended to his father’s throne when trouble came calling. Commandant Willem Hogg, the resident Manager of the Dutch Trading Station in Ughoton, had for nearly a year been pleading with Eresoyen’s father, Oba Akenzua I, to prevail on the Benin Chiefs owing the Ughoton Dutch Trading Station, unsupplied goods on which they had received credit lines. Also, Holland wanted to be allowed to participate in the Ivory trade and break the monopoly the monarch had granted the British and Portuguese ships calling at the Ughoton port. Traders of the two countries were offering better prices for the commodity. 

The palace had seemed to Willem Hogg, unwilling to help the Dutch company recapture slaves who had escaped from the Dutch company’s dungeons at Ughoton while awaiting their evacuation ship from Elmina Castle on the Gold Coast, to arrive. Half-hearted promises had been extracted from the palace over the issue of the runaway slaves, against the overriding feeling at the palace that it was the responsibility of the Dutch to secure their purchases after taking delivery. 



These were the problems weighing on Willem Hogg’s mind when he decided to visit the palace to once more seek the help of Oba Oresoyen. In the presence of the Oba and chiefs, while discussing the issues that brought him to the palace, argument developed, leading to the loss of temper. The Dutchman got up from his seat, pulled out his pistol and shot at the monarch who was quickly shielded by his omada (sword bearer.) The omada took the bullet intended for the monarch and died on the spot. 

Regicide had been attempted and murder committed, and in the confusion that ensured, Willem Hogg sneaked out of the palace. This incidence explains the reluctance of the Obas of Benin to be exposed to European visitors and why the British Capt. Henry L. Gallwey, Vice Consul for the Benin River District of the Niger Coast Protectorate and his delegation, suffered frustration and delays in March 1892, when they requested to meet with Oba Ovonramwen, to conclude a ‘Treaty of Protection’ with Benin kingdom. 

It was the responsibility of the Ezomo to take remedial action against the Dutchman because security matters for Ughoton gateway were under his portfolio. Ezomo Odia was not at the meeting. He had sequestered on his farm for a little while because of misunderstanding with the palace over the issue of the runaway slaves who had mostly taken refuge at his farm. Most of the other runaway slaves were with other chiefs. This was why progress was not possible on the matter. Since the chiefs do not sell slaves, they did not feel it was their business rallying runaway slaves for the Dutch? That sums up the popular refrain on all lips at the time. 

To get Ezomo Odia to return to town, the oracle prescribed that all the princesses of the realm should pay a courtesy visit to Ezomo Odia. The princesses, on being told that Ezomo Odia was at his farm, when they arrived at Okhokhugbo village, braced up for the long journey through shrubs and narrow bush paths. At the farm, they met Ezomo Odia tending his yam crops. Before the Ezomo could ask, to what he owed the honour, all the princesses were down on their knees, between the yam heaps, to greet him and respectfully invite him back to the city. 

Ezomo Odia after making peace with the monarch at the palace went to Ughoton to arrest Commandant Hogg, who was brought to the palace grounds in a mouth-gag, with waist manacles. He was executed at the Ozolua Quadrangle. The two Dutchmen subordinate officers to Willem Hogg at the Dutch Ughoton station were not molested in any way. Six months after Commandant Hogg’s execution, on instructions from Elmina Castle, the senior of the two officers at the Dutch Ughoton station, one Herr Van Marken, who had taken over leadership of the station, visited the palace to make peace and facilitate the resumption of business between Benin and Holland. Eresoyen subdued Agbor rebellion; settled dispute in faraway Abor; built a house of money with walls, floor paved with cowries. 


The Kingdom of Benin was already in continuous contact with nations of the Mediterranean for at least 1,500 years before the Europeans came to Benin. The kingdom's commercial and foreign relations were well established. It had its own money economy Independent of the Europeans. The kingdom of Benin's own currency known as ighos was accepted for trade and general means of exchange in East, west, and North Africa. The kingdom was part of the African empires and kingdoms independent and Sovereign at a time when Europe was part of the Roman colonies. Benin was a powerful Kingdom when the Portuguese first visited there in 1472. King John 11 (1481-1495) of Portugal exchanged friendly correspondence with the King of Benin. The King of Benin on the throne in 1553 spoke fluent Portuguese which he learnt as a child. 

The first British ship reached the Benin River in 1553-the trade was mainly in cloths, palm oil, cowries, beads, and Ivory. By 1400, the kingdom of Benin replaced elective succession with primogeniture. As early as 1500, the King of Portugal received an ambassador from the King of Benin and found him a man of good speech and natural wisdom. Lourenco Pinto, who was the captain of a Portuguese ship that carried missionary to Warri in August 1619, sent this disposition to the Sacra Congregazione the instance of Father Montelcone. According to the testimony of this captain, Great Benin, where the King resides, is larger than Lisbon, all the streets run straight and as far as the eyes can see. The houses are large, especially that of the king which is richly decorated and has Fine columns. The city is wealthy and industrious. It is so well governed that theft is unknown and the people live in such Security that they have no door to their houses 

The picture of black Africa as savages in a dark continent painted by the Europeans was totally false meant only to justify the inhuman slave trade and the theft of African natural resources by Europeans for Europeans. Black African Soldiers formed part of the Carthaginians army. African troops took part in Himilco's engagement against the Greeks at Syracuse. Numidian Calvary was part of Hannibal's army.Carthage (in Africa) was so powerful that Carthago est delendabecame Roman credo and the battle cry - Carthage must be destroyed the Carthaginians acquired an empire from which Sicily, Sardinia and Southern Spain was excluded by the treaty. It was this exclusion of the Greeks and the Romans that accounted for the lack of adequate Information in the writing of classical authors about the extent of Carthaginian involvement in black Africa. Even today in Europe, despite all the hypocrisy, the black man is still treated as a second class citizen no Matter his achievements. The white race refuses to share the secrets of modern technology with black Africa except as consumer.

 

"In 1553, English merchants lead by Thomas Wyndham were received in person by the Oba (king), who in turn traded with them in person, a practice common in the sixteenth century and confirmed by Portuguese reports as well (Hakluyt 1589: 53-65). According to a general description of trade written in 1623, Dutch pepper merchants participated in an extensive credit system, including use of written notes, with the two royal officials in charge of trade. Volume was considerable. Just one of the several Dutch ships involved in the Benin trade, the Olyphant, delivered 88,235 pounds of ivory and 1,337 pounds of Benin pepper to Texel, an island in the Netherlands, in 1630 (Van Wassenaer 1630).

The production of cloth was widespread and in local hands. Cotton growing and weaving were extensive throughout the Benin kingdom, as noted by visitors beginning with Welsh in 1588, followed by Ulsheimer in 1601, who noted its sale to Europeans through Lagos, then in Benin's hands, and Ruiters in 1602 (Hakluyt 1589). Samuel Brun, visiting Benin about 1614 noted that Benin made 'very beautiful cloths, which are exported far and wide and sold. Weaving was essentially a home industry, done by women in their spare time, if more recent documentation is any guide. Their cloth was not only for personal use, as the written accounts attest, but for long-distance trade with other African people, thousands of such cloths being shipped annually by the middle of the seventeenth century, either by the inland waterway past Lagos or on European shipping to the Gold Coast (Ratelband 1645). They even turned up, through European shipping connections, among the burial goods of Queen Nzinga of Matamba central Africa in 1663 (Cavazzi 1687: 110-12). 

CONCLUDING: 


(A) “Happiness belongs to the self-sufficient (Aristotle) 
The Colonies . . . are yet babes that cannot live without sucking the 
breasts of their mother-Cities. . . .(James Harrington) 
One is easily fooled by that which one loves. (Moliere) 
During times of universal deceit, telling the truth becomes a 
revolutionary act. (George Orwell) 
Though thy face is glossed with specious art thou retainest the 
cunning fox beneath thy vapid breast. (Persius) 
The smooth speeches of the wicked are full of treachery. (Phaedrus) 
He carries a stone in one hand, and offers bread with the other. 
(Plautus) 
With one hand he put a penny in the urn of poverty, and with the 
other took a shilling out. (Robert Pollok) 
They fool me to the top of my bent.--I will come by and by. (William 
Shakespeare) 

Before the advent of colonialism, Traditional African Societies were 
self sufficient; there was no out-of-hand wants, needs and nobody 
went hungry. The societies then were communalistic in outlook; nobody 
was left on his or her own. The societies produced enough food and 
gave enough services to its citizens. Each one of them then (society) 
took care of and maintained its territory as it deemed fit. One of 
the things obtained in Traditional African Societies and infact still 
obtainable in few communities uptill now was/is: When a mother has no 
garri ( for instance) to prepare for her family, she will borrow some 
cups of garri from another woman in the village, which she will repay 
back when she processes her cassava into garri. The women used to 
have thrift (a savings and loan association) where they contribute 
money according to their abilities; from there, every one of them 
having financial problem can borrow money. The contribution is shared 
at the end of a period and each woman gets according to her 
contribution. There was also trade by barter; where a woman exchanges 
her farm produce for other food items and vice versa. Age Grades and 
Peer Groups were prevalent in Traditional African Societies and 
helped their members whenever the need arises; they helped their 
members in building houses, turn-by-turn farming, serving guests 
whenever one of their own had marriage or any other ceremonies, they 
helped in chastising and correcting their wayward member(s), infact 
their roles then can´t be overemphasised. These made life much easier 
then than what is obtainable now.

In one of my Anthropology classes back in the day, my professor was discussing how human settlement and civilization progressed from band to tribe, then to states, and finally to nations. Nation was the highest form of civilization any human could achieve, and examples of these were the United States, along with many western European countries. While looking at the projector on the wall, Nigeria, along with many other African countries, was considered a state. The Benin Empire was considered a nation. I unconsciously stood up right in front of the class, interrupted the professor, and told the entire class that I was from the Benin Empire. Only South Africa and ancient Egypt were the other Africans on the list of nations. So Nigeria as a Whiteman’s establishment actually went backward in civilization even by the Whitman’s standard, but in Nigeria, they are so grateful that the Whiteman came to civilize us. He gave us the lies to teach our children, but tells the truth in his universities away from the African populace. Since many of our Nigerian leaders were schooled abroad and must have heard these truths, why have they not implemented the truth and achieve the economic and socio-political relevance of a nation?

 

"Powerful people cannot afford to educate the people that they oppress, because once you are truly educated, you will not ask for power. You will take it." :- John Henrik Clarke

 

RELATIVE ARTICLES:

(a) Yoruba Enslavement of African Ancestors, Major Blocks on W.African ... : http://ihuanedo.ning.com/forum/topics/yoruba-enslavement-of-african

(b) YORUBAS DESTROYED EDUCATION AND CORPORATE CULTURE IN NIGERIA AND NO... : http://ihuanedo.ning.com/forum/topics/yorubas-destroyed-education

(c) 25 REASONS WHY YORUBA NEVER HAD AN EMPIRE BUT CIVILIZED BY BENIN. : http://ihuanedo.ning.com/group/healtheducation/forum/topics/why-yor...

(d) The Oduduwa Controversy Resolved.(Part1) : http://ihuanedo.ning.com/profiles/blogs/the-oduduwa-controversy-1

(e)YORUBA NOT BENIN BUT CIVILIZED BY BENIN : http://ihuanedo.ning.com/group/healtheducation/forum/topics/yoruba-...

(f) Why Wazobia is a lie, not Nigeria! not Majority? : http://ihuanedo.ning.com/group/wazobiaisalienotnigeria/forum/topics...

(g) Politics of numbers: the Wazobia lies. : http://ihuanedo.ning.com/group/wazobiaisalienotnigeria/forum/topics...

 

Views: 7585

Reply to This

Replies to This Discussion

Bolaji Aluko knows nothing about the Bight of Benin and the Benin Republic, infact he knows nothing much abt the slave trade ,i guess he is trying to rewrite history here,.....he's perversed and repulsive,he's nothing but a jackass .

Dokita Adeboye:

In addition to what I wrote below, when one considers the following dates:

British Abolition of Slave Trade - 1807
USA Abolition of Slave Trade – 1807
Spain, France, Portugal, Netherlands Abolition - 1815
British Emancipation – August 1834
USA Emancipation – January 1, 1863

and matches them with the history of Oyo and Egba-Owu wars which led the a larger-scale enslavement of the Yoruba by themselves at the very time when slavery/slave trade was winding down:

Oyo-Ilorin axis
1750 - 1774 - the capital of Oyo Empire was controlled by the Basorun Gaha
1774 - The Alafin of Oyo-Ile Abiodun kills  Basorun Gaha and most of his family
1783 - Oyo suffered defeats at the hands of the Bariba in 1783 and the Nupe in 1790
1789 - Abiodun dies
-Abiodun is succeeded by Awole.  In existence is one of the provincial commanders: Afonja, the Are Ona Kakanfo and Bale of Ilorin
-1790 - Oyo suffered defeats at the hands of  the Nupe 
1796 (circa)  - Afonja stages a rebellion;  forcing Awole, to commit suicide 
-Adebo succeeds Abiodun, followed rapidly by Maku and (after an uncertain interregnum) Majotu
-1804 the Fulani jihad or 'holy war' started in the Hausa state of Gobir 
1826 - Clapperton visited Oyo-lle during Majotu's reign
- Amodo succeeds Majotu. In Amodo's reign Amodo, Oyo-lle was captured by Ilorin, and was killed in a counter-attack on Ilorin.
- Oluewu, the last Alafin of Oyo-lle, is killed in another attack on Ilorin
1836 - the capital was abandoned soon after, 
Near 1836:  Atiba (a son of Abiodun) founded the new town of Oyo after the evacuation of Oyo-lle in 1836

Owu-Ife-Ijebu axis
1811, Oyo travellers were being harassed at Apomu by Ife raiders. On Oyo instructions, Owu intervened and destroyed a number of Ife 
villages. This provoked a war between Owu and Ife, which Owu won. After another incident involving Ijebu traders at Apomu, 
Owu destroyed the town and a number of Ijebu were killed. Owu was now confronted by an Ife-ljebu alliance. According to Johnson
 (1921: 208) the Ijebu were better armed than the other Yoruba, having acquired firearms from the Europeans - another result of the 
shift in the slave trade. 
1821 -The Owu were defeated in battle, and their capital was destroyed after a five-year siege . The Ife and Ijebu 
troops, together with groups of Oyo from the north, went on to attack the Egba towns further west. In the following decade, the area was 
systematically devastated .
1820s - Abeokuta was founded , the Egba being joined by survivors from Owu. 
1826 - Ibadan was founded

QUOTE

The Owu wars marked a new phase in Yoruba warfare in two senses. Firstly, there was the use of firearms. These were at first no great 
advantage to the side using them, but their accuracy and importance gradually grew. Secondly, it marked the start of a new type of total 
warfare in which whole towns were destroyed, and their inhabitants either enslaved or dispersed. With the supply of slaves from the 
north dwindling, the number of slaves of Yoruba origin on the market increased, and slaves became the most important spoils of war for 
the military commanders. Some were exported, but others were recruited into their captors' armies. Many of the 19th century leaders 
had large slave estates, producing food for the armies and palm oil for the trade with Europeans on the coast (Agiri, 1974: 467; Awe, 1973: 67).

UNQUOTE 


Finally, this portion in Eades' write-up is further instruction:

QUOTE

Evangelism, commerce and the abolition of the slave trade came together in the Niger expedition of 1841. The aims of this were to explore the interior, to make treaties with the local peoples, to evangelise, and to establish a model farm at Lokoja (Crowder,1966: 141). Present on the voyage was Samuel Ajayi Crowther, the most eminent of the Saro repatriates from Sierra Leone. Captured after the destruction of his home village near Iseyin in 1821, he arrived in Sierra Leone the following year, and was one of the first students at the newly established Fourah Bay College (Kopytoff, 1965: 35).

The Methodists started mission work at Badagry in 1842, and were soon joined by Townsend, Gollmer and Crowther, all of the CMS (Ajayi, 1965: 31- 4). Townsend and Crowther started work in Abeokuta in 1846. With the growing number of Saro repatriates in Abeokuta, conditions appeared especially favourable for the missions. Initially, their influence was strong, especially after they had helped ward off an attack by Dahomey in 1850, and had supported the British attack on Lagos in 1851. The missions moved further into the interior. In 1853, Hinderer and Mann of the CMS started work in Ibadan and Ijaye respectively, while the Baptists Bowen and Clarke toured extensively in northern Yorubaland and started a station at Ogbomoso. Crowther made a trip to Ketu, before leaving to start his work on the Niger in 1854. The recruitment of Saro missionaries was part of the policy of establishing a native pastorate initiated by Venn, the CMS secretary, who held that a self-supporting and selfpropagating church should be established quickly under local leadership. One of his greatest successes was in getting Crowther appointed as Bishop of the Niger in 1864, despite some opposition from Townsend (Ajayi, 1965: 186-9). The CMS relied heavily on the Saro during the l9th century, and the great majority of the priests ordained were of Saro origin.

The increase of mission activity had a number of other important effects. Firstly, it intensified the study of the Yoruba language and its reduction to Roman script (Ajayi, 1960). The Bible was translated by Crowther and others, and both Crowther and Bowen produced important Yoruba grammars and dictionaries. Townsend was producing a newspaper in Yoruba in Abeokuta by 1859. Secondly, extensive first-hand information on the interior began to appear, both in the mission reports and in published memoirs. A further effect was to influence British policy towards the area, and especially towards Lagos


UNQUOTE

I end there.....particularly for the benefit of Dr. Valentine Ojo, whose penchant for egregious and unsolicited insults as a substitute for scholarly engagement is legendary and best ignored if one does not want unnecessary headache from a curmudgeon.


Bolaji Aluko

On Sat, Jun 4, 2011 at 10:28 AM, Mobolaji ALUKO a rel="nofollow" target="_blank" href="http://us.mc393.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=alukome@gmail.com">alukome@gmail.com> wrote:
  Dokita:
The following map is instructive:
Yoruba diaspora throughout the world
Map showing the greatest concentrations of Yoruba around the globe  [http://www.molli.org.uk/yoruba/1_about_yoruba/index.htm]

Furthermore, we are referred to the following quoted narrative:
QUOTE
The Yoruba Today  by J.S. Eades  (Originally published by Cambridge University Press 1980)  Chapter 2

While Oyo fell apart in the north, a series of wars developed in the south which involved the Ife, Ijebu, Owu and Egba, and which led to the destruction of both the Owu and Egba kingdoms (Mabogunje and Omer-Cooper, 1971; Biobaku,1957). It further illustrated the importance of trade in Yoruba politics and the results of the declining power of Oyo. With the shift in the slave trade to Lagos, the role of the Ijebu as middlemen became more important. Oyo sold many of its slaves to Ijebu dealers at Apomu, but Law argues that in the 1810s supplies from Oyo were limited, and the Ijebu were hard-pressed to meet the demand (1977: 274). Attacks on travellers and kidnappings became common in the area, and it was from such an incident that the Owu conflict arose. In 1811, Oyo travellers were being harassed at Apomu by Ife, raiders. On Oyo instructions, Owu intervened and destroyed a number of Ife villages. This provoked a war between Owu and Ife, which Owu won. After another incident involving Ijebu traders at Apomu, Owu destroyed the town and a number of Ijebu were killed. Owu was now confronted by an Ife-ljebu alliance. According to Johnson (1921: 208) the Ijebu were better armed than the other Yoruba, having acquired firearms from the Europeans - another result of the shift in the slave trade. The Owu were defeated in battle, and their capital was destroyed after a five-year siege, around 1821. The Ife and Ijebu troops, together with groups of Oyo from the north, went on to attack the Egba towns further west. In the following decade, the area was systematically devastated .

The Owu and Egba wars, together with the decline of Oyo, set the scene for the long series of conflicts which engulfed Yorubaland for the rest of the century. The 1820s and 1830s saw the foundation of powerful new states by bands of refugees and freebooters. Abeokuta was founded in the 1820s, the Egba being joined by survivors from Owu. Ibadan was founded in 1826 on the site of an Egba Agura town by a mixture of Ife,, Oyo and Ijebu (Johnson,1921: 238; Awe, 1967). The Ife were expelled in a civil war, and Ibadan has been, in culture at least, an Oyo town ever since. Ijaye was founded in the same period by a group from Ikoyi, led by Kurunmi (Johnson, 1921: 238-46; Smith,1962). Finally, Atiba founded the new town of Oyo after the evacuation of Oyo-lle in 1836 (Johnson, 1921: 274-84). As a son of Abiodun, he was able to secure his own election as Alafin.

The political institutions of Oyo were reconstructed in the new capital, though Oyo itself ceased to have much influence over towns like Ijaye and Ibadan. Kurunmi of Ijaye was appointed Are Ona Kakanfo, and Oluyole of Ibadan was given the title of Basorun.[4] Ijaye's influence extended to the north-west, and Ibadan's to the north-east, where it came into conflict with Ilorin. Despite their defeat at Osogbo in 1840 (Ajayi and Smith, 1971: 33-6) the rulers of Ilorin continued to become involved in the wars between the other Yoruba states for the rest of the 19th century.[5]

The Owu wars marked a new phase in Yoruba warfare in two senses. Firstly, there was the use of firearms. These were at first no great advantage to the side using them, but their accuracy and importance gradually grew. Secondly, it marked the start of a new type of total warfare in which whole towns were destroyed, and their inhabitants either enslaved or dispersed. With the supply of slaves from the north dwindling, the number of slaves of Yoruba origin on the market increased, and slaves became the most important spoils of war for the military commanders. Some were exported, but others were recruited into their captors' armies. Many of the 19th century leaders had large slave estates, producing food for the armies and palm oil for the trade with Europeans on the coast (Agiri, 1974: 467; Awe, 1973: 67).

The wars resulted from the attempts of the newer states-Ibadan, Ijaye, Ilorin and Abeokuta - to fill the political and economic niche previously occupied by Oyo. But now conditions were different. With the shift in population to the forest fringes the importance of cavalry had diminished, and the wars during the rest of the century were fought by armies of infantry with arms imported from the coast rather than the north. This change is neatly symbolised by the story Johnson tells of the Ibadan victory at Osogbo. After the battle, the only uses the Ibadan had for the captured Ilorin horses were as food and as supplies of horsehair for tying on their amulets (1921: 288). The change took place against the background of increasing European penetration, by explorers, missionaries and merchants, followed by troops and administrators.


The growth of European involvement


Three related factors were involved in the expansion of European involvement. The first of these was the slave trade. The activities of slave-traders along the West African coast antedate the discovery of America, but the trade received a great boost with the development of sugar plantations in Brazil in the second half of the 16th century. In the 17th century the demand increased in the plantations both of South America and the Caribbean, and in the 18th century it spread to North America. Curtin estimates that nearly half a million slaves were exported from the Bight of Benin in the century up to 1810 (1971: 267). Many of these would have passed through Oyo, though the Yoruba themselves were not enslaved in large numbers before the Owu and Egba wars.

After the abolition of the trade by the European powers around the turn of the century, their naval forces started to take action against the traders along the coast. Though this did not halt the trade, it did result in the arrival of large numbers of emancipated slaves in Sierra Leone, and after 1820 many of these were of Yoruba descent. Secondly, it made some of the traders look for more secure ports of call and thus helped the commercial growth of Lagos and Badagry. Badagry declined in importance in the 1830s, but Lagos remained the most important slave market in the area until the British bombardment of the island in 1851.

The second factor was Christianity. Mission activity in the late 18th and early 19th centuries drew its strength from the same evangelical revival which had produced the agitation against the slave trade. The Church Missionary Society (CMS) was founded in Britain in 1799 and was responsible for the earliest mission work among the Yoruba, together with the Methodists and the American Baptists.

The third factor was British commercial interest. Despite the fervour of the abolitionists, their increasing support in Britain in the period up to 1807 reflected important economic changes accompanying the industrial revolution. Finding manpower for plantation agriculture was no longer the main concern. This was rather to find sources of primary agricultural commodities and markets for European manufactured goods.

 

UNQUOTE

I also have a table which shows by dates that many slaves were taken around Yorubaland/Bight of Benin JUST about when slavery and the Slave Trade were being abolished, hence those most lately emancipated knew where they came from.  Even those who still made it at that late date to the New World still had FRESH remembrances of home, and taught them to those who they met in the New World (who were not all necessarily of Yoruba origin) and all became emancipated "in place."

Finally, I am not sure why "your slaves are more than my slaves exported" has become another inter-ethnic rivalry - and a new avenue for insults - but facts are stubborn, and truths never refuse to be told.

And there you have it.

 

 

Bolaji Aluko


On Fri, Jun 3, 2011 at 11:18 PM, Adeniran Adeboye a rel="nofollow" target="_blank" href="http://us.mc393.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=aadeboye@mac.com">aadeboye@mac.com> wrote:
  Dear Leye,
You wrote:

 Yoruba was the most spoken language among the freed slaves in Freetown.
But of course. Even today, as we speak (or write), Yoruba culture is extremely strong in Sierra Leone. Many folks there answer Yoruba names. Yoruba religion is prominent in the society and the priests of these religions bear Yoruba titles like babalawo. The head of the equngun festival is still called alagbaa. When I worked for the WAEC in the late1960's, I went to Freetown fairly often. There was not one visit in which I did not witness some practice of one Yoruba ritual or another, carried on in Yoruba language. Thus it was not only the returnees to Yorubaland who chose Yoruba names, many just did not lose their Yoruba (first) names at all. However, when having a surname became important, especially to those who had accepted the Christian faith, adoption of a biblical or European name became the vogue. That vogue was even transported to the Yoruba country since there are folks there who are not descendants of returnees but nevertheless adopted foreign last names.
The determination of the captured Yoruba to preserve his/her identity has never been doubted by any student of history and culture. Yoruba language, religion, and social rituals are still prominent in Brazil, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, Cuba, and Haiti, to name a few. One cannot argue, however, that captives from other ethnic nationalities did not try to do same, but it is eminently clear that the Yoruba footprints have remained uniquely indelible, for whatever reason.
Best regards,
Adeniran Adeboye
On Jun 3, 2011, at 1:54 PM, Leye Ige wrote:

"Most of the Lagos Yoruba with the family names, Williams, Macaulay, Thomas, Domingo, Pedro, Savage, Johnson, George, etc. were returnee slaves who did not know their ethnic origins and family names. "--KC Asagwara

KC,
How did you come about your statement that "most Lagos Yoruba ....... who did not know their ethnic origins" as if Yoruba is no longer an ethnicity? Abi they were Yoruba and did not know it? Besides, they could have been taken anywhere and freed or disembarked anywhere like Freetown, and there were those, like Ajayi Crowther, who traced their ancestry and origin back to Yorubaland; ditto Herbert Macaulay; ditto Sapara Williams, ditto Samuel Johnson, ditto several others, popular and unpopular. Yoruba was the most spoken language among the freed slaves in Freetown. So, sir, yes, these were Yoruba because they traced their roots back to Yorubaland. Were all freed slaves Yoruba? Of course not. All you need to do is to showcase yours and not deny others who they were.
Leye Ige

--- On Fri, 6/3/11, Asagwara, Ken (EDU) a rel="nofollow" target="_blank" href="http://us.mc393.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=Ken.Asagwara@gov.mb.ca" style="color: #1e66ae;">Ken.Asagwara@gov.mb.ca> wrote:

From: Asagwara, Ken (EDU) a rel="nofollow" target="_blank" href="http://us.mc393.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=Ken.Asagwara@gov.mb.ca" style="color: #1e66ae;">Ken.Asagwara@gov.mb.ca>
Subject: [NaijaPolitics] RE: TO: Leye Ige - Do Not Distort Returnee Slaves History
To: "'NaijaPolitics@yahoogroups.com'" a rel="nofollow" target="_blank" href="http://us.mc393.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=NaijaPolitics@yahoogroups.com" style="color: #1e66ae;">NaijaPolitics@yahoogroups.com>, "'nigerianid@yahoogroups.com'" a rel="nofollow" target="_blank" href="http://us.mc393.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=nigerianid@yahoogroups.com" style="color: #1e66ae;">nigerianid@yahoogroups.com>
Cc: "'nidocanada@yahoogroups.com'" a rel="nofollow" target="_blank" href="http://us.mc393.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=nidocanada@yahoogroups.com" style="color: #1e66ae;">nidocanada@yahoogroups.com>
Date: Friday, June 3, 2011, 4:02 PM

 

Yoruba returnee slaves were/are as much Yoruba as any, regardless of the origin of their family names; lest a Sapara Williams, a Herbert Macaulay or a Bode Thomas  et al would be regarded as "less" Yoruba.” Leye Ige

 

Leye Ige:

 

Please be careful distorting portions of the history of the slave trade and the returnees after abolition. Most of the Lagos Yoruba with the family names, Williams, Macaulay, Thomas, Domingo, Pedro, Savage, Johnson, George, etc. were returnee slaves who did not know their ethnic origins and family names.

 

They were returned from the high seas when the slave ships holding them were captured and seized by the abolitionist; some were returned from the colonies of the USA, Nova Scotia in Canada, the Caribbean Islands (Jamaica, Trinidad, Bahamas, etc.) and South America. They were settled in the West African coasts of Lagos/Lagos Island, Badagry, Sierra Leone, Accra, Takarodi, Ghana earlier Gold Coast. Etc. Some others were settled in Calabar.

 

They, the returnee slaves could have been by ethnic origin, Yoruba, Igbo, Edo, Ijaw, Efik, Urhobo, or any of the other ethnic nations along the West Coasts of Africa from where most slaves were captured and shipped to the new world. That is why, I have kept saying to our Lagos Yoruba folks who harbour hatred and ill-feelings for the Igbo, Ijaw, Edo, Ibibio, etc. to be careful for such could be against their own blood and long lost family members.

 

Thanks.

 

Mazi KC Prince Asagwara 

 
 

From: NIgerianWorldForum@yahoogroups.com [mailto:NIgerianWorldForum@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Leye Ige
Sent: June-02-11 9:46 PM
To: AfricanTalk; NIgerianWorldForum@yahoogroups.com; naijaobserver
Cc: omo oodua
Subject: Re: [NIgerianWorldForum] RE: TO: DR. VALENTINE OJO --- YOUR REACTION TO JUI's NEEDED RE: Bizzare: Woman Cuts Off Attackers' Penis

 
 

Yoruba returnee slaves were/are as much Yoruba as any, regardless of the origin of their family names; lest a Sapara Williams, a Herbert Macaulay or a Bode Thomas  et al would be regarded as "less" Yoruba. What is at stake is their contribution to Yoruba society and Samuel Johson's "History" is given its due respect. Samuel Ajayi Crowther interviewed and engaged many babalawos in the process of translating the Bible into Yoruba Language, so they were not merely parroting the "master's voice".
Leye Ige

--- On Thu, 6/2/11, Dr. Valentine Ojo a rel="nofollow" target="_blank" href="http://us.mc393.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=valojo@md.metrocast.net" style="color: #1e66ae; font-family: Verdana;">valojo@md.metrocast.net> wrote:


From: Dr. Valentine Ojo a rel="nofollow" target="_blank" href="http://us.mc393.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=valojo@md.metrocast.net" style="color: #1e66ae; font-family: Verdana;">valojo@md.metrocast.net>
Date: Thursday, June 2, 2011, 7:42 PM

 
Ogbeni Leye Ige:

Here for example, I am in agreement with most of what you wrote.

However, Tope Fasua is not saying or advocating that "
Winston Churchill should be the "mentor" or an advocate for our past, as if we do not have those who had based their political philosophy and governance on such a paradigm". 

He was merely repeating how Winston Churchill impacted his view of history in general - and not Nigerian nor Yoruba history as such.

Secondly, I beg to disagree that  "
the efforts of Samuel Johnson and his brother ( and the CMS) placed Yoruba history on our reading tables
".


No, the efforts of these "black missionaries" and their senders - the CMS, Methodist, Baptist, Catholic, Church Tower, etc. - merely sabotaged and undermined our authentic history by placing before us an African history manufactured by Europeans.

Like I already remarked in an earlier exchange, Samuel Johnson and Ajayi Crowther et al were merely speaking in their Masters' Voices!

They did not carry out any original researches of their own!

And since when do Yoruba people have "Johnson" and "Crowther" as family names...?

These were returnee slaves who bore the names of their white owners, and who merely repeated the Yoruba history taught to them by theirEuropean Slaves Masters who "forced" them to become christians so they could regain their "freedom"!


Barring these two reservations, I agree with the rest of what you wrote below.

Take care!

Dr. Valentine Ojo
Tall Timbers, MD




On Thu 06/02/11 2:53 PM , Leye Ige ige.leye@yahoo.com sent:
 

It is surprising that Winston Churchill would be the "mentor" of an advocate for our past, as if we do not have those who had based their political philosophy and governance on such a paradigm. The Egbe Omo Oduduwa was formed precisely to reconnect us with our past; the efforts of Samuel Johnson and his brother( and the CMS) placed Yoruba history on our reading tables; the Action Group government(warts and all) developed a method of cultural educational development--so, relating and experiencing our past as the stepping stone for the future is not new, at least to us in Yorubaland. Besides, the Yoruba have an inherent saying to the effect that a river that forgets is source is bound to dry up. We didn't need a Winston Churchill for that as the saying, in our consciousness, predated him.
But you went further to state that " not many countries were formed with the consent of its inhabitants" and had the US, Australia etc as examples. The first question is, knowing the dominant culture/forces in these examples, which one will become dominant in Nigeria to such an extent that a Nigerian country can come into existence without the consent of her inhabitants? Failing which, because the current inhabitants were yet to be wiped out, they are demanding the right of consent; for, in the modern age, many countries have come into existence with the consent of her inhabitants--Czech, Slovak, South Sudan, the many countries from the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and now, Scotland, even with some powers devolved, is asking for total separation from the UK.
So,the "success" of Lugard had to do with the then existing power relations between the conqueror and the conquered--it does not permanently deny the conquered to seek for, and achieve new conditions of its existence. And there is no reason to bellyache about Dagrin. I believe each of the Nations in Nigeria knows its past. So, the question is whether Nigeria is a Nation and if not, whether it is desirous that a Nation  be made out of it by consent of its inhabitants.
Leye Ige

--- On Thu, 6/2/11, a_quadruple@yahoo.com wrote:


From: a_quadruple@yahoo.com 

TF,
Yours is worth thinking of over and over again. Lots of truth in there.

AAAA.

 

THERE WAS NEVER A YORUBA or OYO EMPIRE BUT THERE WAS A BENIN EMPIRE.
"Between the 7th century and 16th century, in Africa there is a great economic, political and cultural development with the creation of several States and kingdoms such as the one of Great Zimbabwe(), of Mutapa, the Empire of the Congo(), Ghana(), Great Benin Empire(), Mali() and Songhay().
Africa was never isolated from neighbouring continents. Several regions were directly influenced by Islam. These contacts with the outside, particularly with the Arab world through trade, Africa gave a valuable contribution and important experience.

However, from the 16th century the course of African history has a total turnaround, as Europe enters a period of economic and geographic expansion, to interfere negatively in the development of African societies.

Between the 16th and 19th centuries, millions of Africans are torn violently from their lands and villages bound for America and the islands of the Indico() ocean, where they are forced to work on large plantations of sugar, tobacco, cotton, cocoa and gold and silver mines. These products are then used as raw material for industries in evolution in Europe.
Due to the fact that in America the settlers failed to use Indians as workforce in volume and desired conditions, they turn to the slaves imported from Africa. Around the year 1550, he began this traffic of slaves from Africa to America and from 1720 to the uninhabited islands of the Indian Ocean.
With the slave trade, the man becomes a change object, a commodity and a machine working, instead of the ox or plow.
There were various methods used to obtain slaves. The wars between the kingdoms for control of trade and the expansion of their territories were the main forms of appropriation of slaves, which were later sold on the coast to traffickers. Even, sometimes the traffic was carried out among groups of a same leadership, when demand was abundant. Occasionally, slaves were obtained through the imposition of taxes to the subject heads. The traffickers were also on their own wars and "raids" to get slaves.
Between the 16th and 19th centuries, millions of Africans are torn violently from their lands and villages bound for America and the islands of the Indico() ocean, where they are forced to work on large plantations of sugar, tobacco, cotton, cocoa and gold and silver mines. These products are then used as raw material for industries in evolution in Europe.
Due to the fact that in America the settlers failed to use Indians as workforce in volume and desired conditions, they turn to the slaves imported from Africa. Around the year 1550, he began this traffic of slaves from Africa to America and from 1720 to the uninhabited islands of the Indian Ocean.
With the slave trade, the man becomes a change object, a commodity and a machine working, instead of the ox or plow.
There were various methods used to obtain slaves. The wars between the kingdoms for control of trade and the expansion of their territories were the main forms of appropriation of slaves, which were later sold on the coast to traffickers. Even, sometimes the traffic was carried out among groups of a same leadership, when demand was abundant. Occasionally, slaves were obtained through the imposition of taxes to the subject heads. The traffickers were also on their own wars and "raids" to get slaves.
source: http://ihuanedo.ning.com/group/healtheducation/forum/topics/portugu...

The Iwe Irohin gives the following additional particulars of the great fire at Abbeokuta -

The townships of Owu, Oba, and Igbore were the first to suffer. The fire then passed over the Oba hill and between it and the Owu hill, destroying the Church Missionary station at Owu, both houses and Church were burnt down, the premises of Capt J. P. L. Davies, of Mr. M'Coskry, of Mr. K. Borgmeyer where a large quantity of palm oil was stored in casks all of which were destroyed : of Mr. C.N. Young who lost everything, the Wesleyan Chapel at Ogbe, but the house was saved: the house of Mr. Monday was burnt.

Mrs. Gbambala's house was saved but the thatch over the walls enclosing the premises was burnt. The fire passed over Shokore, a rapid stream in wet weather but now dry, and ignited the extensive premises of Mr. Riberio, Madam Tinubu, Mr. Savage and that of the West African Company.

The iron house of the West African Company was no protection: by some means, the property inside caught fire and was entirely consumed. The large hydraulic cotton Press of the West African Company just completed was destroyed together with their Oil and cotton. A quantity of oil belonging to Capt. Davies and Mr. H Robbin was saved from being stored at some little distance off and in the open air.

Anong the Sierra-Leone people who suffered were Mr. Savage who is said to have lost 30.000 gallons of oil, Mr Peter Rae 9,300 gallons of oil, Mr. Jas George 4.560 gallons of oil, and 12 kegs of powder. Mr. J. Holloway 1.300 gallons of oil, and 319 lbs of cotton, Mr. C. N. Young who lost everything. furnitures, clothing, books, cotton, cotton gins, puncheons of oil, rum, and building materials. Mr. S Williams 30 puncheons of oil.

There are many of whose losses we have no information, but the estimated total loss is £25.000 or £30.000. There was great loss of life, but we cannnot ascertain correctly the number of persons who perished : it is supposed to be over twenty.

* see alsohttps://www.facebook.com/groups/nigeriannostalgiaproject/permalink/...

* photo of Captain J.P.L. Davies - 15 September 1862 © National Portrait Gallery, London

The Anglo African, Saturday February 4, 1865

"Aku" - (term for mostly Yoruba speaking people from today's South West Nigeria & liberated from the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade (TAST) in Sierra Leone) - signatories to a petition requesting British support for emigration to Badagry. Having settled in Sierra Leone (which was a British Colony used by Britain to settle liberated Africans from the TAST) for some time post liberation and after gaining knowledge of different trades, crafts and in some cases Christian missionary work, some Aku were determined to return to their different homelands in what is today's Nigeria.

Viewers will note the title 'Aku-"King"' next to the names of Thomas Wills and John Macaulay. These men were considered the heads of the Aku community in Sierra Leone and all the Aku owed allegiance to them. This interesting paternal tradition, retained by the Aku outside of their indigenous Yoruba territory, is considered significant by some historians in fashioning the role of the returnee Aku's in the affairs of Lagos and contiguous areas.

A brief sketch of 3 signatories who definitely returned to Lagos, according to Jean Herskovits Kopytoffis captured below:

JOHN NOTTIDGE: "Nottidge returned to Lagos and entered government service. When Lagos became a British colony, he became its first jailer."

JAMES GOODING: "Gooding became an important figure in Lagos in the 1850's and 1860's. Vice-president of the Sierra Leonian Court in 1855, he was later president of the African Commercial Association, started in Lagos in 1863, and composed of emigrants of Ibadan, Ijebu, Egba and Ijesha origins who wanted to mediate in the Ijaye War."

JOHN TURNER: "Turner was an Egba, captured as a boy, sold to a slave trader, and subsequently liberated at Sierra Leone. He was said to have been closely related to prominent chiefs in Abeokuta. He returned to Lagos in 1853 and soon became a prosperous trader, serving on the emigrant court during the consular period, when he also acted as a surveyor of lands and lots for the Oba, in addition to farming his revenues. On behalf of the Lagos government he was sent to Ejirin Market to negotiate with the Ijebu, with whom he was also said to have had lineal connections. After the burning of the market he settled in Abeokuta, disclaiming British jurisdiction over him, and ther ehe continued trading. He was an active member of the EUBM [Egba United Board of Management]; after being its first treasurer, he later was given the title "Master of the Family."

It is important to note that the Aku were determined to return to Lagos with or without British support. Many of them bought condemned slave ships (the "Queen Victoria" in one case, and in another a ship renamed "Margaret"). It is also instructive to note that the decision to sail to Lagos/Badagry wasn't without risk: these Aku could have been captured by slave traders.

Source: A Preface to Modern Nigeria: The "Sierra Leonians" in Yoruba, 1830-1890 by Jean Herskovits Kopytoff.

Reply to Discussion

RSS

Great Benin Bronze

EDE N'ERHENA VBE EDO

"

These anti-Edo political organizations you folks went to join are the most anti-African - and Africans - in the world.

They're worse than anything; we obviously can't stop you though, even Ewuare II's manifest destiny lies in our own regional party.

We have egba Omo Oduduwa and so on, NPC, AG, the forerunner of them all NCNC and then now these cancers of today.

Stay "with them", but register for your most important election first: your local election, register Edo Political Front, and if you don't, vote the front.

No self respecting Edo will - in the future - find themselves the flag bearers and cheerleaders of foreign parties with indirect rule political and economic mandates, it just doesn't work.

No sane Edo person lives to "have the ear" of someone who doesn't have Edo at their heart.

The Supreme Court is the place to remove the frustration of these lethargic and "periodic" additions to the voting rolls; here - where I live - you can fill in the forms regarding changing your voter registration at the post office and other easy access places.

At the rate things are going we're going to find ourselves truly in decline as our populations suffer from simple things like protein deficiencies in children

" - Reggie Akpata

© 2017   Created by Otedo News Update.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service

Local And International News Outlets
OTEDO.COM New Nigerian Newspaper Los Angeles Times Leadership Newspaper Thisday Vanguard Newspaper 234Next Daily Champion MTN Football Chicago Inquirer PM News National Daily NigeriaHealthWatch News Star Newspaper Desert Herald Sahara Reporters Associated Press Nigeria Liberty Forum,UK AFP Online BBC Nigerian Village Square Telegraph Newspaper Nigerian News Service Newswatch The Guardian Punch Daily Independent Nigerian Tribune The Nation The Sun Coastalnews NewsDiary Online Daily Trust Compass Newspaper CNN SKY Sports Yahoo! News KickOff Nigeria CNET News Reuters United Press International