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Amid the slowdown in China’s infrastructure- and real-estate-led economic model, emerging-market growth stories are looking scarcer. Food and agriculture are commonly cited possibilities. But how much opportunity remains? And where are the pockets of greatest potential? This report examines a broad swath of dietary, demographic, and economic data to answer those questions and identifies the companies best positioned to benefit.

We expect India and sub-Saharan Africa to play starring roles in the emerging-market diets growth story, overturning what has been a China-centric narrative. We expect caloric gains in India in the next decade to exceed China’s impressive growth of the past decade. Intriguingly, the outlook is even better for sub-Saharan Africa, where we expect caloric intake to increase by nearly the total caloric intake of the United States. By contrast, Chinese caloric intake is likely to plateau after the gains of the past three decades, which have pushed calories per capita near rich-country levels.

Agriculture products in Nigeria in high demand worldwide and areas of production in Nigeria.
(1)   West Africa collectively supplies two thirds of the world's cocoa crop, with Ivory Coast leading production at 1.22 million tonnes, and nearby Ghana, Nigeria,Cameroon and Togo producing additional 1.41 million tonnes. Ivory Coast overtookGhana as the world's leading producer of cocoa beans in 1978.



Top 5 facts sources:

  1. World Cocoa Foundation. (2010). "Learn About Cocoa" Retrieved Feb, 2011 from: http://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/learn-about-coc

    The Top 5 Cocoa Bean Producing Countries




Production 2011

% of World Total

% Change from 2010


Cote d Ivoire

1,559,441 m/t


+ 19.8%



712,200 m/t


+ 15.7%



700,020 m/t


+ 10.7%



400,000 m/t


+ 0.2%



272,000 m/t


+ 3.0%

Corporate Nigeria is a Corporate Guides International publication.

Cocoa Growing

Nigeria’s biggest agricultural export is full of coca beans  

Nigeria is the fourth-largest producer of cocoa beans in the world, behind Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Indonesia. After petroleum, cocoa is the country’s most important export – before independence, cocoa generated 90% of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings. Eclipsed these days by oil as the country’s major export, Nigeria still produces 300’000-350’000 tonnes of cocoa a year, most destined for consumption abroad – the country exports about 96% of its cocoa crop. Cocoa exports for October-March 2009/10 were up 31% on the previous year, helped by good weather conditions and improved quality in stock in the growing regions.  
Fourteen of Nigeria’s 36 states grow cocoa: Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ekiti, Kogi, Kwara, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo and Taraba.
Stakeholders and Programmes for Growth
Despite cocoa’s importance in the years before independence, the sector was allowed to decline after the oil boom of the 1970s and suffered for decades from under-investment. The cocoa industry was liberalised in 1986, when the government abolished the Nigerian Cocoa Board, a government bureau that controlled the marketing of cocoa, and deregulated the industry. The decline continued, however, so to rehabilitate the industry, in 1999 the government set up the National Cocoa Development Committee (NCDC). The NCDC promotes cocoa production and trade in cooperation with the various growers’ agencies operating in the industry, like the Cocoa Association of Nigeria (CAN), the Cocoa Farmers Association of Nigeria (CFAN) and the Cocoa Growers Association of Nigeria (COGAN).

The Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) is another major stakeholder in the sector: established in 1964 as a government parastatal, the Institute conducts research on cocoa, distributes seedlings to farmers and trains growers in modern agricultural practices as well as in business development skills.

(2) TOP Palm Oil Production by Country in 1000 MT

Nigeria is 5th Largest producer of Palm products in world according to this report inhttp://www.indexmundi.com/agriculture/?commodity=palm-oil& 














Where is palm oil grown? 

Palm oil (elaeis guineensis) is a tropical oil which means it grows only within 10 degrees north or south of the equator. These growing regions house vast areas of tropical rainforest rich in biodiversity on the continents of Asia, Africa and South America. Demand for edible vegetable oils has grown strongly in recent decades and palm oil production has expanded rapidly to meet the global demand. http://greenpalm.org/about-palm-oil/what-is-palm-oil/where-is-palm-oil-grown


Reactivating Nigeria’s Oil Palm Industry

Beginning 1950s and till mid-1960s, Nigeria remained the largest producer of crude oil palm world over. It had a market share of 43.0%, supplying 645,000 MT of palm oil, on annual basis, across the globe. The civil war which began in 1967 and lasted till 1970 changed all of that. The war predominantly took place in eastern Nigeria which was the seat of oil palm plantations. The oil palm belt includes the states of Abia, Anambra, Bayelsa, Akwa-Ibom, Cross River, Delta, Eboniyi, Ekiti, Enugu, Ondo, Ogun, Osun, Oyo, Imo and Rivers.

The war destroyed almost all of the oil palm plantations and dispersed the small land holders of oil palm, who till date, accounts for 80.0% of the oil palm produced locally. The war though ended but left behind a legacy of crippled oil palm industry.

The total land that is idea 90.0% of palm oil is consumed by food industry and the remaining 10.0% is used by the non-food industry. Foods like noodles, vegetable oil, biscuits, chips, margarines, shortenings, cereals, baked stuff, washing detergents and even cosmetics thrive on palm oil. Noodle industry alone consumes 72,000 MT of imported palm oil and the leading, domestic palm oil producers fail to meet this demand. Thwarted by unavailability of sufficient oil palm in the Nigerian market, some noodle-makers have proactively announced strategic alliances to invest in oil palm plantationsl for oil palm plantation totals approximately 24 million hectares in the whole of Nigeria. However, little over 3.0 million hectares of land is put to use. The total plantation area of oil palm in and around Niger Delta ranges from 1.4 million hectares – 1.8 million hectares, the wild grove plantation is more than 1.1 million hectares, smaller plantations (categorized as plantations below 1000 hectares) approximates to 26,000 hectares and organized large estates adds up to another 100,000 hectares. http://businessdayonline.com/2013/08/reactivating-nigerias-oil-palm...

(3) Natural Rubber Exports by Country




Natural rubber exports represent the world’s number 90 export product. In 2013, total exported rubber sales amounted to US$23,283,439 or 0.15% all exported products.
The 4-digit Harmonized Tariff System code prefix for natural rubber is 4001.

Below are the 15 countries that exported the highest dollar value worth of natural rubber during 2013:

1.    Thailand: $8,233,510,000 (35.4% of total rubber exports)

2.    Indonesia: $6,910,663,000 (29.7%)

3.    Malaysia: $2,230,998,000 (9.6%)

4.    Viet Nam: $1,810,216,000 (7.8%)

5.    Côte d’Ivoire: $ 942,518,000 (4%)

6.    Germany: $336,816,000 (1.4%)

7.    Belgium: $296,008,000 (1.3%)

8.    Guatemala: $238,843,000 (1%)

9.    Liberia: $201,998,000 (0.9%)

10.  Myanmar (Burma): $199,618,000 (0.9%)

11.  Singapore: $187,617,000 (0.8%)

12.  Luxembourg: $174,111,000 (0.7%)

13.  Nigeria: $164,301,000 (0.7%)

14.  Cameroon: $151,401,000 (0.7%)

15.  France: $ 129,057,000 (0.6%)

Among the above countries, the fastest-growing rubber exporters since 2009 were: Luxembourg (up 463.9% since 2009), Belgium (up 365.3%) and Germany (up 187.5%).

Overall, natural rubber exports were up by an average 95% for all rubber exporting countries over the same period. The listed 15 countries shipped 95.4% of all rubber exports in 2013.



By Vincent Egunyanga

 Daily Trust (Abuja)

1 August 2013

Nigeria: Rubber Production Declining

According to the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, rubber is an important cash crop cultivated in 18 states of the country, which include Abia, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo. Rivers, Ondo, Ogun, Taraba, Oyo, Ebonyi, Enugu, Osun, Ekiti, and Kaduna.

The decline in the production of rubber in Nigeria has been described as alarming and worrisome especially to the nation's economy. This situation arose from the total neglect of rubber industry since the discovery of oil in the country.

National President of the National Rubber Association of Nigeria (NRAN), Mr Emmanuel Bassey, stated this adding that his association wants the revitalization of the industry because of its potential to boost the economy of the nation through returns from the non-oil sector, particularly in agriculture where the country has potentials and comparative advantage to increase production, revenue, employment and rural development.

He lamented that rubber which used to be the fourth largest foreign exchange earner for Nigeria after crude oil, hide and skin and cocoa, has since been neglected by government thereby throwing rubber farmers out of business.

He said rubber production has been on the downward trend from a peak of 113,479 metric tons before the advent of crude oil, to 46,000 metric tons in 2004 and has since then hardly recorded any significant increase in production. He cautioned that Nigeria must ensure it does not slide into an importer of natural rubber for its domestic use.

Several factors are responsible for the poor production of rubber in Nigeria among which are low yield of trees particularly the unknown pedigree that dominate the small holdings and preponderance of old trees that have passed their peak of production.

Bassey said the potentials for rubber development in Nigeria are very high and if only 50 percent of the stated targets are met, the country will earn significant revenue of not less than $2.86 billion or N3.2 trillion from export, generate employment for over 400,000 persons and develop the required boost in rural development and environmental conservation.

Researchers agree that there is the need to gear up efforts towards increased production and also the need for total valorization of rubber tree and to explore new uses for rubber, especially now that car tyres which used to consume over 70 percent of Nigeria's rubber are no longer produced in the country following the exit of Michelin and Dunlop tyre manufacturers.

Commenting, the Director Planning of Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN), Dr Timothy Esekhade advised governments at all levels in Nigeria on the need to pay more attention to rubber production as a way of creating wealth and improving revenue generation and job creation.

He described rubber as an economic crop desired all over the world, whose products used to be the mainstay of the economy of the old Western and Mid Western parts of the country, adding, "over 80 to 90 percent of aeroplane tires, Earthquake shock absorbers in Asia, can be used to prevent building collapse and is the most sought after, after wood for furniture.

"Natural rubber which is in large quantity in Nigeria is an important source of raw material for industries especially shoes, carpets among others which when properly utilized can create employment and serve as an important foreign change earner for the country," he said.

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According to the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, rubber is an important cash crop cultivated in 18 states of the country, which include Abia, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo. Rivers, Ondo, Ogun, Taraba, Oyo, Ebonyi, Enugu, Osun, Ekiti, and Kaduna.

As a commodity exported as processed latex, ribbed smoked sheets or technically specified rubber, rubber is reported to be the second most significant non-petroleum foreign exchange earner in Nigeria.

Natural rubber production is considered to be one of the most profitable agro industrial ventures. It is a strategic material because it cannot be replaced by synthetic rubber in some important applications due to its outstanding characteristics like elasticity, resistance to abrasion, impact and corrosion, its impermeability, insulating properties and ability to disperse heat.

As reforestation crop, rubber can help to control the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere thus combating the green house effect. Rubber is currently used in more than 50,000 different products such as adhesives, tires, surgical gloves, health equipment, and accessories, condoms, coatings and floor coverings.

Dr Timothy also lamented that despite the huge benefits to be derived in rubber production, the commodity has been neglected especially since the advent of crude oil in the country.

Some stakeholders in the agric sector of the economy have also harped on the dangers of continued neglect of rubber in the country.

At a recent meeting of the National Agricultural Council of Nigeria held in Abeokuta, the Ogun State capital, Dr Kolawole Afolabi, a senior research officer of the Rubber Research Institute explained that rubber has great potential to take over from oil as a foreign exchange earner for the country. He said with $3,000 per ton for rubber in the international market, Nigeria which has the capacity to produce over 200,000 tons yearly can make a lot of money from increased rubber production.Part of the challenges facing rubber production in the country include neglect by relevant federal and state authorities in the country especially as a result of oil boom, price fluctuations, and land among others.

The Nigeria Rubber Association noted that government interventions were unduly delayed and limited in scope and practical actions were neither adequately sustained nor given the required financial backing for specific projects.

The institute also said that in order to encourage Nigerian farmers on rubber production government should give fertilizer, rubber seedlings among others free for farmers

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